While the Covid-19 pandemic appears to be coming under control in Asia and Europe, it continues to wreak havoc in Latin America. The World Health Organization has described this as a “new epicentre”. FRANCE 24 provides an overview of the situation in these countries, which are trying to achieve a balance between protective health measures and the need to start reviving the economy.
While Europe is slowly emerging from lockdown, Latin America is now the most affected place in the world, with terrible repercussions for both the economy and employment.
“South America has become a new epicentre for the disease. We are seeing an increase in the number of cases in many South American countries,” said executive director of WHOs Health Emergencies Programme Michael Ryan at a virtual conference from Geneva.
Brazil, Mexico and Peru are experiencing the most severe concentration of deaths in Latin America. Chile, for its part, is on the brink of collapse, according to its president, while Ecuador and especially the city of Guayaquil, are beginning to show signs of recovery.
FRANCE 24 provides an overview of the different situations in the region:
In Brazil, populism and pandemics mix poorly
With a population of 210 million, Brazil is now the second most affected country in the world, behind the United States, in number of confirmed cases. It is feared that the number of infections and deaths could be higher, as the country has been slow to implement screening tests.
Far-right populist president Jair Bolsonaro has been downplaying the epidemic since the beginning of the crisis. With his supporters, he has denounced "the dictatorship of the coronavirus” and has regularly refused to respect any social distancing. During a meeting in the capital Brasilia on Sunday, he removed his mask, shook hands with as many people as possible and to even carried a child on his shoulders.
To protect the population, however, local authorities have adopted containment measures against the advice of the president.
In Mexico, too hasty to end lockdown?
Mexico has the second highest death toll in Latin America with more than 6,000 deaths related to Covid-19. In spite of this, President Andrés Manuel López Obrador is already considering ending lockdown and claimed in a press conference that "the pandemic has been tamed", allowing "a return to a new normalcy".
While he believes that social distancing must be maintained, his government has already begun working on how the country should emerge from lockdown. They have developed a four-colour coding system depending on the intensity of the virus's circulation. Obrador wants to restart economic activity as soon as possible. This rush to a new normal is being delayed by the closure of the border with the United States, a trading partner on which Mexico is highly dependent.
"The social distancing campaign has made it possible to smooth out the epidemiological curve so that hospitals are less saturated. But [Obradors] eagerness to end lockdown risks provoking a second wave of contagion,” Dr. Guillermo Torre of the faculty of medicine at Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, said in an interview to the French daily Le Monde. This is especially true since NGOs have questioned whether the real number of cases is greatly underestimated in the country.
In Peru, the struggle continues
On March 16, when only 86 cases were officially registered, Peru was the first Latin American country to adopt restrictive measures in an attempt to contain the epidemic. But, after nine weeks of lockdown, infection figures exploded. Peru is now the second most affected country in Latin America after Brazil, and the third in terms of number of deaths after Brazil and Mexico.
The spread, despite lockdown, is due to several factors. The first is the fragility of the Peruvian health system. More than 8,000 Covid-19 patients are hospitalised in Peru. But, due to a combination of lack of protective equipment and failure to follow health safety protocols, the virus has spread rapidly among health care workers. At least 635 doctors and 1,200 nurses contracted the disease, and 33 health-care workers died.
In addition, markets and banks have acted as vectors for circulating the virus. By declaring lockdown, the government was forced to maintain essential economic activities, including the sale of food in markets. The markets became a source of contamination until the government responded by closing them down. The same problem occurred with the banks, where Peruvians flocked to withdraw emergency aid vouchers.
The soaring number of infections can also be explained by the central role of the unofficial sector, which accounts for 70 percent of the country's activities. Thousands of people defied lockdown orders to feed their families.
In Chile, hospitals are overcrowded
Chile registered a new high for coronavirus cases on Monday, with nearly 5,000 infections in 24 hours, including two ministers in President Sebastian Piñera's government.
Over the past two weeks, Chile has seen a very significant increase in contamination, which has prompted the government to decree compulsory lockdown for the seven million inhabitants of the capital, Santiago.
Piñera was alarmed that the national health system became saturated and "very close to its limits". In Santiago, the occupancy rate for intensive care beds is close to 95 percent.
But the pandemic is not the only problem facing Chile. Unemployment and hunger have exploded in the poorest neighbourhoods. In mid-May, residents of Santiago defied compulsory lockdown to protest.
In response, the Chilean government has begun distributing 2.5 million food baskets to the poorest families. These distributions, estimated to cost $100 million, are to take place throughout Chile for people who have lost their jobs due to the health crisis. But the situation remains explosive because of a social imbalance that was already tense before the epidemic.
In Venezuela, has the epidemic been contained?
According to Venezuela's president, Nicolas Maduro, the country has managed to "contain" the spread of the coronavirus. The Venezuelan government recorded just 11 deaths related to Covid-19 and 1,211 confirmed cases on Wednesday.