The majority of Muslims who are targeted in racist attacks on the streets are women, a new report has found.
An annual study into Islamophobia by Tell MAMA (Measuring Anti-Muslim Attacks) showed that there was a 4% rise in reports of abusive behaviour against Muslims in Britain.
Women who wear traditional Islamic clothing, such as a hijab or niqab, were the most likely group to face abuse, Tell MAMA said.
The organisation said: ‘Given the impact of anti-Muslim hatred on the mobility of Muslim women and on the personal life choices that they make, the impacts are also felt within the family and have implications for integration and social cohesion.’
Its study found that 56% of Muslims who suffered incidents of abuse in person are women – making it the second year in a row its annual report found that women are more likely to be targeted than men.
White men are most likely to launch an attack, Tell MAMA said, with the group responsible for 69% of incidents where the attacker is identifiable.
According to female victims of Islamophobia, the language of many attackers had misogynistic overtones, meaning they were assaulted for their gender as well as their religion.
In total, the number of street-based incidents reported in Britain in 2016 rose from 437 in 2015 to 642.
Hundreds of other attacks happened online, the organisation added.
Tell MAMA also urged anyone witnessing anti-Muslim abuse to step in and intervene.
It said: ‘A lack of intervention from members of the public during incidents, especially on public transport, can compound the deeper psychological impact that a hate crime can have on a person, compared to equivalent non-aggravated offences.’Let's